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Who Invented the Sewing Machine? History, Facts & Scandals Revealed

who invented the sewing machine

Who invented the sewing machine is the most frequently asked question in the sewing community. For a good reason. The history of the sewing machine is littered with accusations, failed attempts and some serious scandal. From narrowly escaping death to patent law suits, it’s an interesting story that demonstrates the seam-ingly humble sewing machine ruffled more than a few feathers in its infancy.

A 20,000 Year Old Art Form

The history of the sewing machine wouldn’t exist without the artistry of hand sewing. People started sewing by hand some 20,000 years ago, where the first needles were made from bones or animal horns and the thread made from animal sinew. Our inventive instinct explains the natural progression to want to improve sewing techniques and make it less laborious. Cue the Industrial Revolution in the 18th Century, where the need to decrease manual sewing in factories became paramount.

1755:  The First Patent

Charles Weisenthal, a German man, was issued a British patent for a “needle that is designed for a machine.” Unfortunately, there’s no description in Weisenthal’s patent of any mechanical machine, but it shows there was a need for such an invention.

image of charles weisenthal
Charles Weisenthal

1790: The First Detailed Design

The history of the sewing machine & who invented it essentially starts here. Englishman Thomas Saint designed the first sewing machine of its kind. The patent described a machine powered with a hand crank to be used for leather and canvas. Nobody knows if Saint built a prototype, but in 1874, William Newton Wilson found the patent drawings. They were so detailed, he built a replica, proving that it did work.

thomas saint sewing machine
Newton Wilson’s model of Thomas Saint’s sewing machine design

Early 19th Century: Many Attempts, Many Fails

It’s worth mentioning that all early designs of a sewing machine before the first successful one, all moved the needle side to side and were powered with a winding handle.

  • 1810: Balthasar Krems invents an automatic machine for sewing caps. He didn’t patent his design, but it didn’t work anyway.
  • 1814: An Austrian tailor, Josef Madersperger, was issued a patent in 1814. He was persistent, attempting several different designs, but all were unsuccessful.
  • 1818: John Adams Doge and John Knowles invent America’s first sewing machine, but it could only sew a few bits of fabric before breaking.
history of the sewing machine josef madersperger
Madersperger, the Austrian tailor.

1830: The First Successful Sewing Machine

Joy! 40 years since Thomas Saint first drew and described a machine for sewing, we finally have a functioning sewing machine. Barthelemy Thimonnier, a French tailor, invented a sewing machine that used a hooked needle and one thread, creating a chain stitch.

sewing machine history
Barthelemy Thimonnier’s first sewing machine, 1830.

1830: A Riot & Near Death Experience

After the successful patent, Thimonnier opened the world’s first machine based clothing manufacturing company. His job was to create uniforms for the French Army. However, when other French tailors got wind of his invention, they weren’t too pleased. They feared his machine would result in their unemployment so they burnt down his factory whilst he was still inside. Never take your sewing machine for granted ever again; this guy almost died for it.

inventor barthelemy thimonnier
Bathelemy Thimonnier

1834: Morals Over Money

This is an example of sticking true to your beliefs. Walter Hunt created America’s first functioning sewing machine, but he had second thoughts. Hunt thought such a machine would cause unemployment for many, so he didn’t bother to patent the design. Now you see where things are going to get messy.

walter hunt sewing machine
A model of Walter Hunt’s sewing machine, based on his patent drawings.

1844: A Lost Patent

The sewing machines we’ve seen so far are all made up of disjointed elements, with nothing really working together. In 1844, English inventor John Fisher designed a sewing machine that would eliminate this disparity between the moving parts. However, a botched filing job at the Patent Office resulted in his patent getting lost, so he never received any recognition.

history of sewing machine woman sewing
A woman on an Elias Howe Lockstitch sewing machine

1845: Elias Howe & the Lockstitch

Elias Howe from America invented a sewing machine that resembles Fisher’s, with some tweaks and adjustments. His patent stated “a process that uses thread from 2 different sources.” His machine had a needle with an eye at the point. It went through the fabric creating a loop on the reverse, a shuttle on a track that slipped the second thread through the loop, creating what is called the lockstitch.

He struggled to market his design, so he took the plunge and sailed to England. After a lengthy stay, he returned to his motherland only to find others had copied his lockstitch mechanism. One of those was an Isaac Merritt Singer.

history of sewing machine elias howe machine
Elias Howe’s Lockstitch sewing machine, patented 1846.

1851: Introducing Isaac Singer

Isaac Merritt Singer is one of the most well-known sewing machine manufacturers, building an empire that is still going today. His iconic Singer sewing machines are beautifully ornate and somewhat legendary. He developed the first version of our modern day sewing machine, with a foot pedal and the up-and-down needle. Elements from the Howe, Hunt and Thimonnier inventions inspired Singer, causing Howe to file a lawsuit.

Singer's first sewing machine
Isaac Merritt Singer’s first sewing machine, patented 1851.

1854: A Real Stitch Up

elias howe
Elias Howe

Elias Howe took Singer to court for Patent Infringement, where he defended his case and won. Isaac Singer tried to refer back to Walter Hunt’s design, expressing that Howe infringed upon his idea. Unfortunately for Singer, this didn’t have any impact at all. The lack of patent on Hunt’s design meant it was intellectual property for anybody to use.

What’s interesting is that if John Fisher’s patent hadn’t have been filed wrong in the Patent Office, he too would have been involved in the law suit as both Howe and Singer’s designs were near enough identical to the one Fisher invented.

Isaac Singer sewing machine manufacturer
Isaac Merritt Singer

Consequently, Singer was forced to pay a lump sum of patent royalties to Howe, as well as giving him a share in the I.M. Singer & Co profits.

Despite all the allegations, drama and legal disputes, Howe and Singer both died multimillionaires, and each of these pioneering inventors gave the world the sewing machine. Without the early failed attempts and sheer persistence to create something that would relieve the women and factory workers of long, perilous hours, who knows what our clothing manufacturing industry would look like today. The history of the sewing machine is a complicated one, and as a result, many enthusiasts still debate who can claim the title of the real inventor. Our stance? We’re just glad we still don’t have to use animal sinew and bones.

These guys made many mistakes when it came to the sewing machine. Read on and learn more about the different sewing machine manufacturers in our blog post “Sewing Machine Manufacturers – A Brief History of the Big Guns“.

6 comments

  • The post has actually peaks my interest. Iwill bookmark your website and keep checking for new info.

  • good information.

  • How old is my machine number 6685131 from Glasgow?treadle singer machine.

  • 1810 etc is early 19th century, not 18th century.

  • This was actually very helpful, thx

  • When visiting the Smithsonian Museum I marvelled at the workmanship on the buttonholes on George Washington’s uniform jacket made in late 1780’s I think. Only thing I knew about was Singer’s patent so this fills in some of the gaps. I had a hard time believing the buttonholes were handmade but maybe they were. Thanks for the interesting article!

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